At 3 months post-study enrollment, 11 patients in the supportive care group who showed no improvement became eligible and were crossed over to receive Atgam therapy. Efficacy was evaluated as sustained improvement in peripheral blood counts within 3 months of entry into the study. A statistically significant (p<) difference was observed between the two treatment groups in hematological improvement based on the investigator's evaluation; 11 of 21 (52%) patients in the Atgam group responded, compared with no patients (0 of 20) in the control group. Six of the 11 crossover patients from the control group showed improvement after 3 months of therapy. Overall, of 32 patients in both the Atgam group and the control group who crossed over to receive Atgam, 17 patients (53%) had a hematological improvement. Estimated 1-year survival rate was 62% for all 32 patients treated with Atgam. The 2-year survival rate was 100% among the Atgam responders [17 of the 32 patients (53%) compared to 14% for the nonresponders].
The common side effects of oxymetholone include depression, lethargy, headache, swelling, rapid weight gain, priapism , changes in skin color, urination problems, nausea , vomiting , stomach pain (if taken on an empty stomach), loss of appetite, jaundice , breast swelling in men, feeling restless or excited, insomnia , and diarrhea .  In women, side effects also include acne , changes in menstrual periods , deepened voice, hair growth on the chin or chest, male pattern baldness , enlarged clitoris , and changes in sex drive .  Because of its 17α-alkylated structure, oxymetholone is highly hepatotoxic . Long term use of the drug can cause a variety of serious ailments, including hepatitis , liver cancer , and cirrhosis ; therefore periodic liver function tests are recommended for those taking oxymetholone.